Statistics data show that in Poland and other countries recently drinking water consumption has been going down. There are many reasons to believe that this decrease has not reached its limit yet. This paper is an attempt to explain the causes and effects of water consumption in Polish towns and cities. The decrease in water consumption leads to important consequences such as: an increase in the unit prime costs of the water supply and sewerage utilities, a lowering of the water flow velocity and the extension of the water flow time in ducts, a water supply and sewerage potential efficiency surplus in relation to the water sale and sewage collection and an increase in sewage concentration connected with a fall in unit sewage volume. All these consequences involve further consequences. There is no ideal way available to solve the problems connected with the fall in water consumption.

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