The extreme shortage of public water supplies in most countries of the Middle East has steadily commanded a great political importance. Regional disputes over the riparian rights relevant to the transboundary surface and groundwater resources are imminent. Therefore, it is opportune to plan for feasible, affordable, and sustainable measures such as conservation, wastewater reclamation, artificial recharge, and particularly utilization of deep groundwater and submarine springs. Chekka Bay, in the north of Lebanon, is well known for its freshwater springs. A general objective of the study was set at evaluating the feasibility of exploiting the submarine springs in the Chekka Bay taking into consideration the technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of such a project. The study has been subdivided into three parts, namely hydrogeological, marine and socio-economic. Off-shore exploitation of the submarine springs could face implementation problems as it is technically difficult, financially expensive, and yields a qualitatively unacceptable water. A more suitable alternative would be to tap the submarine springs inland through wells of differing depths. The financial feasibility of the latter alternative has been confirmed through a cost-benefit analysis.
Exploitation of submarine springs in Lebanon: assessment of potential
G. Ayoub, R. Khoury, J. Ghannam, A. Acra, B. Hamdar; Exploitation of submarine springs in Lebanon: assessment of potential. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 1 February 2002; 51 (1): 47–64. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2002.0005
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