Amsterdam Water Supply produces 70 million m3 drinking water per annum in its Leiduin plant and is considering increasing the plant capacity to 83 million m3 per annum. The existing plant is a conventional surface water treatment plant. For capacity expansion, two alternative treatment schemes, each using reverse osmosis, are being considered. In these considerations, environmental impact plays an important role. Environmental impact of the plant was assessed with life cycle analysis. The total impact for annual production from the existing and the two future alternative schemes are 2.89E+04, 3.65E+04 and 3.44E+04 eco-points respectively. The significant impact contributors are the use of conventional energy, softening and the granular activated carbon process. Impact reduction up to 73% may be achieved by the use of 100% green energy, the use of an alternative chemical [Na2CO3 in place of NaOH] in the softening process and doubling the carbon run time.
Improving eco-efficiency of Amsterdam water supply: A LCA approach
P. K. Mohapatra, M. A. Siebel, H. J. Gijzen, J. P. van der Hoek, C. A. Groot; Improving eco-efficiency of Amsterdam water supply: A LCA approach. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 1 June 2002; 51 (4): 217–227. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2002.0019
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