The removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products, atrazine, and disinfection by-product precursors, was evaluated during a pilot-scale study conducted at the Bollman Water Treatment Plant in Concord, California, USA. Treatment alternatives included ozonation followed by biologically active filtration (BAF), and nanofiltration. Both technologies exhibited excellent broad-spectrum removal of the spiked target contaminants. The ozone/BAF system in particular showed a high degree of effectiveness despite relatively low ozone doses corresponding to a low disinfection target (0.5-log Giardia reduction). The BAF system was observed to remove several contaminants that were relatively unreactive with ozone, demonstrating an important synergy between the ozone and BAF.
Comparing methods to remove emerging contaminants and disinfection by-product precursors at pilot scale
Ron Hofmann, Fariba Amiri, Sarah Wilson, Elisa Garvey, Chris Metcalfe, Cari Ishida, Kimberly Lin; Comparing methods to remove emerging contaminants and disinfection by-product precursors at pilot scale. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 1 November 2011; 60 (7): 425–433. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2011.152
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