Fifty-seven per cent of all water supply systems in the Netherlands are controlled by model predictive flow control; the other 43% are controlled by conventional level-based flow control. The differences between conventional level-based flow control and model predictive control were investigated in experiments at five full-scale water supply systems in the first half of 2011. Quality parameters of the drinking water and energy consumption of the treatment and distribution processes were measured and analysed. The experiments showed that the turbidity values are 12–28% lower, and particle volume values 12–42% lower for the systems which are controlled by model predictive flow control. The overall energy consumption of water supply systems controlled by predictive flow control is 1.0–5.3% lower than conventional level-based flow controlled systems, and the overall energy costs are 1.7–7.4% lower.

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