Single nanometer sized particles are poorly retained by conventional water treatment methods and are hardly detectable in water samples. The particles present a separate class of pollutants and their transport and fate cannot be studied by tracking bacteria, turbidity, free dyes or ions. Dyed bacteriophages and gold nanoparticles are two novel tools that facilitate the studies of virus transport, adsorption and inactivation. The approach is exemplified in studies of slow and rapid sand filtration, ultrafiltration, chlorination and UV disinfection, performed over the last decade. An analysis of general retention trends points to the interrelation between macroscopic particle characteristics and its retention. A better retention, a higher zeta potential and a shorter residence time are associated with larger viruses. A ratio of virus size to its surface area highlights the importance of diffusion as the transport step and electrostatic interactions as the attachment step.
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This article was originally published in
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua
Research Article| November 29 2013
Dyed viruses and metal particles for advanced separation studies
1Unit of Environmental Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
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Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua (2014) 63 (5): 325–331.
December 12 2012
October 28 2013
V. Gitis; Dyed viruses and metal particles for advanced separation studies. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 1 August 2014; 63 (5): 325–331. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2013.204
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