Biosand filters (BSFs) have been used widely as an efficient, inexpensive, and appropriate point-of-use technology. Several organizations are promoting filters without adequate testing, which may not lead to sufficiently safe devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a modified biosand filter (MBSF) with an extra disinfection layer (brass or zero valent iron (ZVI)) and three layers of underdrain in a range of parameters including Escherichia coli, total coliform, turbidity, pH, and dissolved oxygen. On average, a 91.29% reduction (log 1.43) in total coliform, 98.7% reduction (log 2.6) in E. coli and 88.71% reduction in turbidity were observed for the control. There was a 90.11% reduction (log 1.41) in total coliform, 98.2% reduction (log 2.25) in E. coli, and 88.5% reduction in turbidity for MBSF brass. A 96.93% reduction (log 1.81) in total coliform, 97.33% reduction (log 2.36) in E. coli and 91.5% reduction in turbidity for MBSF ZVI were observed. Adding brass as a disinfection layer in MBSF did not improve bacteria and turbidity removal rates. Adding ZVI as a disinfection layer gave better turbidity and total coliform removal relative to control and MBSF brass. Water quality remained within drinking water standards for all filters.
Performance assessment of modified biosand filter with an extra disinfection layer
Banu Sizirici Yildiz; Performance assessment of modified biosand filter with an extra disinfection layer. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 12 May 2016; 65 (3): 266–276. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2016.103
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