A demonstration project evaluated a range of sampling methods and supporting techniques for tackling lead in drinking water in Alberta Province, with the cities of Calgary and Edmonton as case studies. The sampling protocols specified by Health Canada in their 2009 guidance were confirmed to need further improvement and clarification; these sampling protocols produce results that are subject to variable influences and do not provide a sufficiently clear basis for identifying corrosion control needs nor for demonstrating the success or otherwise of mitigation measures. Instead, it was concluded that a risk assessment and risk management approach would be better suited to tackling the lead in drinking water problem in Canadian cities and townships. This can be applied in a more pragmatic manner that reflects the circumstances of individual water supply systems, using drinking water safety plans as the foundation.

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