Nanocomposite filters were developed by sorption of silver (Ag) nanoparticles into a matrix of household filters consisting of porous mineral tuff and their subsequent chemical deposition. The antimicrobial effects of the nanocomposite filter with Ag nanoparticles on Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis and on a mixture of soil microorganisms were shown in water. The level of influence of Ag directly depended on its quantity to cause an inhibitory effect on bacteria; for each type of bacteria the amount of Ag causing antibacterial effect varied. Moreover, the efficiency of the filter for large-volume disinfection of water (up to 1,000 L) was determined. It depended on Ag nanoparticles’ quantity and the amount of microbial load. Nanocomposite filters from porous mineral tuff with adsorbed Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties and can be recommended for disinfection of a large volume of drinking water.