In many water distribution systems, water losses are a major problem and an integrated management strategy is required for both the efficient use of water resources and the minimisation of non-revenue water. For foul sewer systems, the inflow of stormwater and infiltration of groundwater affects the management of both sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants. Monitoring of flows represents a critical task within approaches for control of either water losses in distribution systems and infiltration and rain-induced inflows in foul systems. Implementation of monitoring typically involves the following steps: (i) system information updating and digital mapping; (ii) system zoning; and (iii) system flow monitoring. Costs for monitoring are essential for utilities to estimate more accurately the costs of control of water losses, infiltration and inflow and to support more robust decision-making. Costs and infrastructure data were collected from 20 Portuguese water and wastewater utilities. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to obtain cost functions for meter chambers as a function of the volume and for purchase and installation of flow meters as a function of nominal diameter in water supply systems. For the steps of system information updating, digital mapping and system zoning single unit costs are estimated.

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