Abstract

This study presents a baseline assessment of carbon emissions in water utilities in Madaba, Jordan. The Energy Performance and Carbon Emissions Assessment and Monitoring Tool (ECAM) is applied in the present study in order to reduce indirect and direct emissions. Input data for the assessment included inter alia, population, water volumes, energy consumption, and type of wastewater treatment. The methodology focuses on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use that is directly associated with the utility operations covering the whole water cycle. The ECAM's Quick Assessment revealed that 89.7% of the energy is consumed in abstraction and distribution systems of water supply, whereas wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge consumed only 10.3% in Madaba. The detailed ECAM tool assessment results showed that total GHG emissions from the entire water and wastewater system in Madaba are approximately 28.122 million kg CO2/year. The water supply is the major contributor to GHG accounting for 62.4%, while 37.6% of GHG emissions result from sewage treatment, and are associated with treatment process requirements considered in this work, in addition to sludge transport from septic tanks to the wastewater treatment plant. The findings of this work can help the utility to undertake energy efficiency and GHG reduction measures.

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