The use of agricultural waste to remove heavy metals from wastewater has attracted much attention due to its economic advantages and high removal efficiency which is attributed to different functional groups. The sorption mechanism of biomass can consist of several steps including chemisorption, complexation, adsorption on surface, diffusion through pores, and ion exchange. Heavy metals were removed in different rates depending on the adsorbent and metal itself. For instance, coconut waste showed adsorption capacities of 263 and 285 mg/g in removing lead and cadmium ions, respectively. Also, black oak bark has adsorbed mercury in an adsorption capacity of 400 mg/g, while wheat brans adsorption capacity for chromium was 310 mg/g. The adsorption capacity is commonly calculated by Lagergren's first-order equation, the Redlich Peterson model, and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) model. However, Langmuir and Freundlich models were intensively used to calculate the adsorbed amount by a unit weight of solid sorbents. This review article aims to present the recently available information on utilizing the biomass materials for heavy metals removal. Here, we highlight the increasing use of these materials due to their low cost, regeneration ability, high adsorption efficiency, and small chemical or biological sludge with a possibility of metal recovery.

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