As the saying by Leonardo Da Vinci goes, ‘Water is the driving force in nature’. Needless to say, water is an inevitable part of our day-to-day activities, and access to safe water and sanitation is a major concern in many developing countries and countries in transition. At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit held in 2015, ‘ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’ was set as one of the global goals for sustainable development. Water scarcity is a global issue due to the following reasons: (i) population growth, (ii) expanding urban environments, (iii) agricultural land use patterns, (iv) variation in water consumption approaches, and (v) climate change. According to recent statistics, a major proportion of living habitats is in crisis because reservoirs and aquifers have dried up, and approximately one in seven people on the planet lack access to safe drinking water....

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