Problems associated with water supply and resources will in the future have to be solved by using the most recently developed techniques in water engineering science, hydrology and the environment. These developments however should not fail to recognise the considerable expertise in exploiting water resources evident in the prehistoric record of Australia.It is beneficial to establish an awareness of the skills demonstrated to solve water management problems in prehistory when approaching present day attempts in this field. Unfortunately, to date little attention has been paid to the proficiency with which prehistoric people found and utilised water resources in Australia. A remarkable expertise existed in gathering, storing and conserving water in a wide range of environments in American Prehistory.A variety of food types were obtained from water in rivers and creeks, as well as from marine and estuarine environments. These resources were exploited in a variety of ways. Shell fish and crustaceans were collected along ocean shores and harvested from rocks and by diving. Fish were caught with spears, traps and nets. Fishing was also carried out from canoes with hooks and lines. Exploiting aquatic resources using fish traps was widespread across the Australian continent.Examining these practices of the past is enlightening and quite valuable.