The conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) resources has grown worldwide. Optimal conjunctive water use can be planned by coupling hydrologic models for the simulation of water systems with optimization techniques for improving management strategies. The coupling of simulation and optimization methods constitutes an effective approach to determine sustainable management strategies for the conjunctive use of these water resources; yet, there are challenges that must be addressed. This paper reviews (1) hydrologic models applied for the simulation of GW-SW interaction in the water resources systems, (2) conventional optimization methods, and (3) published works on optimized conjunctive GW-SW use by coupling simulation and optimization methods. This paper evaluates the pros and cons of GW-SW simulation tools and their applications thus providing criteria for selecting simulation–optimization methods for GW-SW management. In addition, an assessment of GW-SW simulation–optimization tools applied in various studies the world over sheds valuable knowledge for selecting suitable simulation–optimization tools in similar case studies for sustainable water resource management under multiple scenarios.
Reviewing hydrologic models applied for the simulation of GW-SW interaction.
Reviewing conventional optimization methods for conjunctive GW-SW.
Reviewing simulation–optimization methods for conjunctive GW-SW.
Evaluating the pros and cons of GW-SW simulation tools.
Providing criteria for selecting simulation–optimization methods for GW-SW management.