The quality of groundwater resources is at catastrophic risk. The proper performance of iron nanoparticles has made a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) an alternative to conventional filtration methods. The performance of nanozerovalent iron (nZVI) PRBs is limited by particle aggregation, instability, and phase separation, even at low iron concentrations. Therefore, the precipitation of reactive materials and a decrease in the longevity of PRB are fundamental challenges. A laboratory setup is used to compare the performance of bare nZVI and xanthan gum (XG)-nZVI + Mulch PRB to simultaneously remove nitrate, sulfide, and arsenic in groundwater. nZVI (average diameter of 35–55 nm) particles are used as reactive media. The objectives are (1) to develop a method for treating nitrate, sulfide, and arsenic simultaneously in groundwater using organic mulch and XG-nZVI; and (2) to evaluate the longevity performance of the XG-nZVI + Mulch and bare nanoparticles treatment system over 10 days. The results showed that the XG-nZVI + Mulch barrier's performance for eliminating NO3-, As, and S2− was generally improved compared to the bare nZVI barriers by 5.7, 19.2, and 10.9%, respectively. Finally, despite the need for long-term sustainability assessment, XG-nZVI PRB performance is impressive, and this stability promises to improve the longevity of nanoparticles while used in PRBs.

  • Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) based on XG-nZVI + Mulch can lead to adequate remediation of NO3, As(V), S2− compared to the bare nZVI barriers by 5.7, 19.2, and 10.9%, respectively.

  • The stability and longevity of the XG-nZVI + Mulch barrier are outstandingly better than the bare nanoparticles barrier.

  • XG-nZVI + Mulch PRB's footprint is green and sustainable because of using recycled materials.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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