Lebanon's economic crisis has disrupted the country's energy and water sectors, highlighting their interdependence. The methodology involves surveying 150 municipalities across all Lebanese governorates, ensuring a comprehensive coverage of public and private water resources. Data on water and energy were collected before and during the crisis to explore this nexus during periods of economic turmoil. The findings reveal a decline in water provision during the crisis, with the average weekly water supply plummeting from 49 h in 2019 to 22 h in 2023. Concurrently, the use of water tankers has surged from 26 to 44%, indicating a concerning shift in water acquisition methods. Despite the crisis, conventional water sources remain predominant, while unconventional sources account for less than 1% of the total supply. In response to the energy shortage, renewable energy sources have gained traction in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The scarcity and rising cost of electricity have driven the adoption of solar photovoltaics in the water sector, reaching 4.8% for extraction from underground reservoirs and 2.8% for distribution. Similarly, the use of solar water heaters has increased from 7.9 to 15.4% in 2023. These findings underscore the interplay between energy and water security during periods of economic instability.

  • Currency devaluation exposes vulnerability in the water–energy nexus.

  • Significant decrease in water availability during the economic downturn with household access dropping from 49 to 22 h per week.

  • A notable shift in water acquisition methods with 44% of the population relying on water tankers.

  • Emerging adoption of solar photovoltaic technology in the water sector.

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