With increasing water demands, the impetus to use treated wastewater to augment nonpotable and potable water supplies is growing.
There is also increasing concern that recycled wastewater might contain contaminants harmful to human health or the aquatic environment. Contaminants of concern include endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), compounds that can interfere with the proper functioning of hormone systems.
The goal of this research was to develop approaches combining bioassays with chemical analysis to study removal of EDCs by different reclamation treatment process. Hydraulic corresponding composite samples were collected for individual unit operation and analyzed using HPLC-ELIAS, GC-NCI-MS, and bioassays. Whereas estrogenic activity was accounted for by chemical components of primary effluents, more androgenic activity was found than could be explained by testosterone concentrations.
Generally. secondary treatment removed EDCs very efficiently. For effluents in which estrogenic activity remained, it was mainly comprised of 17-estradiol and estrone whereas androgen activity was caused by remaining testosterone. Secondary treatment employing nitrification/denitrification more efficiently removed EDCs than facilities employing no nitrification. Powered activated carbon, soil-aquifer treatment and integrated membrane systems (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) efficiently removed endocrine disrupting activity
This title belongs to WERF Research Report Series
ISBN: 9781843397588 (Print)
ISBN: 9781780403939 (eBook)
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