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This is an Open Access book chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The chapter is from the book Trace Elements in Anaerobic Biotechnologies, Fernando G. Fermoso, Eric van Hullebusch, Gavin Collins, Jimmy Roussel, Ana Paula Mucha and Giovanni Esposito (Eds.).

Anaerobic digestion industries need to achieve higher performance and strive harder to play a key role in the green future of the energy sector. The importance of trace elements (TE) in the welfare of anaerobic bioreactors must be taken into account by the stakeholder/user to achieve these objectives. However, the implementation of a TE strategy is often stopped by its complexity, a lack of resource and the economic reality of a full-scale operating plant. The aim of this chapter is to support the translation of academic research findings to the engineering and operating of fullscale plant. Management tools have been developed to help operator and stakeholder in their TE assessment of their anaerobic digestion (AD) plant and suggest potential strategies to overcome deficiency. It is essential to understand the key elements of the AD system when developing the TE strategy. Feedstock is the sole natural provider of TE to the AD and determines the matrix inside the reactor. Reactor design and operating conditions fix the chemical environment that governs the behaviour and availability of the TE while controlling the TE need for bacterial population.

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