Trace Elements in Anaerobic Biotechnologies
The use of trace elements to promote biogas production features prominently on the agenda for many biogas-producing companies. However, the application of the technique is often characterized by trial-and-error methodology due to the ambiguous and scarce basic knowledge on the impact of trace elements in anaerobic biotechnologies under different process conditions. This book describes and defines the broad landscape in the research area of trace elements in anaerobic biotechnologies, from the level of advanced chemistry and single microbial cells, through to engineering and bioreactor technology and to the fate of trace elements in the environment.
The book results from the EU COST Action on ‘The ecological roles of trace metals in anaerobic biotechnologies’. Trace elements in anaerobic biotechnologies is a critical, exceptionally complex and technical challenge. The challenging chemistry underpinning the availability of trace elements for biological uptake is very poorly understood, despite the importance of trace elements for successful anaerobic operations across the bioeconomy. This book discusses and places a common understanding of this challenge, with a strong focus on technological tools and solutions. The group of contributors brings together chemists with engineers, biologists, environmental scientists and mathematical modellers, as well as industry representatives, to show an up-to-date vision of the fate of trace elements on anaerobic biotechnologies.
ISBN: 9781789060218 (Paperback)
ISBN: 9781789060225 (eBook)
Chapter 6: Assessing fate and bioavailability of trace elements in soils after digestate application
C. M. R. Almeida, Ishai Dror, Mirco Garuti, Malgorzata Grabarczyk, Emmanuel Guillon, Eric D. van Hullebusch, Andreina Laera, Nevenka Mikac, Jakub Muňoz, Dionisios Panagiotaras, Valdas Paulauskas, Santiago Rodriguez-Perez, Stephane Simon, Jan Šinko, Blaz Stres, Sergej Usťak, Cecylia Wardak, Ana P. Mucha, 2019. "Assessing fate and bioavailability of trace elements in soils after digestate application", Trace Elements in Anaerobic Biotechnologies, Fernando G. Fermoso, Eric van Hullebusch, Gavin Collins, Jimmy Roussel, Ana Paula Mucha, Giovanni Esposito
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biotechnological process in which organic matter is microbially converted into biogas and digestate. Many parameters affect the underlying microbial processes, including depolymerization of organic compounds, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis, as part of the AD cycle. Optimal concentrations of different nutrients and micronutrients are a prerequisite for optimum microbial growth and metabolism in AD processes. The effluent digestate can be used as a substitute for chemical fertilizers, recycling nutrients to create more sustainable agricultural production systems. Trace elements (TEs) can be transferred to soils during application of digestate as fertilizer, being subjected to environmental influences. To evaluate TEs bioavailability and uptake by plants (which can be transferred to the food chain), TEs leaching processes (which can prevent loss of soils nutrients and run off in ground waters), and TEs effects on soil organisms (which can affect soil fertility and productivity), it is relevant to assess the fate and availability of TEs after land application of digestate. This book chapter provides an overview of different type of biogas plants and digestate post-treatment processes. Possible physicochemical interactions between digestate and soil components, which influence TEs speciation and availability for biological uptake, are also described. Finally, different TEs fractionation and speciation techniques are extensively discussed to give to the reader a good basis when investigating the fate of TEs in soils after digestate application.