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This is an Open Access book chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits copying and redistribution for non-commercial purposes with no derivatives, provided the original work is properly cited (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). This does not affect the rights licensed or assigned from any third party in this book. The chapter is from the book Assessment of Treatment Plant Performance and Water Quality Data: A Guide for Students, Researchers and Practitioners, Marcos von Sperling, Matthew E. Verbyla and Sílvia M. A. C. Oliveira (Authors).

This chapter describes how you should prepare and present the general results from your monitoring programme, in terms of flows, concentrations, removal efficiencies, and loads. We cover the basic elements of descriptive statistics, covering simple numerical methods for describing your data. Initial elements for data handling are described, such as the preparation of summary tables and the analysis of missing and censored data and outliers. After that we advance on descriptive statistics, covering measures of central tendency (mean, median, geometric mean, and weighted averages), variation (standard deviation and coefficient of variation), and relative standing (percentiles). The graphs associated with descriptive statistics are presented in the next chapter.

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