The research aims to find out the reusability of jute stick charcoal (JSC) to remove Remazol Red (RR) from textile effluents. The JSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze the morphology, functional groups, and chemical composition, respectively. The batch adsorption method was applied in this study, and it disclosed that dye uptake depends on various factors, namely, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and dye concentration. Notably, 93.12% of the dye was removed with the best removal efficiency at a pH of 1, an adsorbent dose of 0.6 g, and an equilibrium time of 120 min, where the adsorption occurred rapidly in the first 20 min. The Langmuir isotherm model successfully defined the adsorption phenomena, yielding an R2 value of 0.995. The kinetic experimental data followed the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.999). The optimum adsorption parameters were implemented for the effluent obtained from a dye bath where a fabric sample (5 g) was dyed with RR, and 62.4% dye was removed. For the scaled application of JSC to a wastewater stream, the raw textile effluent was also treated, which resulted in 52.6% of dye removal. These results show that JSC is a promising adsorbent for treating textile wastewater.

  • Adsorption of RR dye on JSC and characterization of JSC were studied.

  • The adsorption process is highly pH-specific (pH = 1).

  • Nearly 93.12% of the dye removal was observed at optimized conditions.

  • The experimental findings fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models.

  • The optimum conditions have been implemented on both the dyed sample fabric bath (62.4% removal) and actual raw textile effluent (52.6%).

Dyes are the unsaturated organic compound that can impart colour to the substrate when adhered (Yagub et al. 2014). Before the invention of artificial chemical dyes in the latter part of the 19th century, natural dyes were the only means of colouration. After the development of synthetic dyes, the manufacturing of dyes grew significantly, leading to the greater consumption of dyes in different fields of life. This makes dyes an integral component of various industries like textile, leather, cosmetics, paper, food, electronics, etc. Among all the above-mentioned sectors, the textile industry accounts for the most considerable proportion of dye usage and emits a significant volume of effluent. According to an estimation, the textile industry releases about 200,000 tons of toxic waste into the water each year during dyeing and finishing (Ogugbue & Sawidis 2011). Dyes are carcinogenic in nature, so even a small quantity of dye (even below 1 ppm) discharged into waterways contaminates water sources (Daneshvar et al. 2003). Consistent with the literature, it is observed that the dyes and wastewater from textile industries cause harmful impacts on plants (Ghodake et al. 2009). Both natural and manufactured dyes can create water pollution, which is now a serious risk to the ecology and human beings (Alsukaibi 2022). These dyes accumulate in the food chain, disturbing the food web that consequently affects both aquatic and land environments. They are accountable for decreasing photosynthesis rate as they hinder the permeation of light deep into the water system, posing adverse effects on aquatic fauna and flora. They degrade water quality, causing skin soreness, respiratory issues, mental illness, vomiting, etc. Given this context, wastewater must be decontaminated before releasing it into the environment. Due to the complicated structures of aromatic compounds (resistance towards degradation) present in synthetic dyes, they are difficult to eliminate from wastewater (Ahmed et al. 2022).

To date, several wastewater removal processes, such as coagulation, filtration, photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, advanced oxidation process, biodegradation, and many other methods, have been developed for dye removal from wastewater (Cai et al. 2017). However, it is obvious from the literature that both biological and chemical wastewater treatment methods find limited uses due to their high cost, low selectivity, and side product formation (in the form of sludge), which is another source of secondary pollution (Ghzal et al. 2023). Among the dye removal methods, adsorption is one of the preferable methods to others because of its simple methods, cheapness, high effectiveness, and lack of insensitivity to toxic substances (Foo & Hameed 2010; Zhu et al. 2019). In the adsorption process, choosing an appropriate adsorbent is the first and most important step. For the removal of different types of dyes, a variety of adsorbents have been reported in the literature as walnut wood, peels of orange, sugarcane bagasse, soy waste, and many more (Ghzal et al. 2023). However, in this study, we utilized jute stick charcoal (JSC) as an adsorbent, which is a cheap and abundant material in the South Asian region, and RR, a vinyl sulphone-grouped reactive dye, is very famous in the textile industry. The dye poses a nucleophilic addition reaction with cellulose fibres (since the percentage composition of cellulose is high in textile fibre) like cotton, viscose, etc. (Iqbal 2008).

To date, different kinds of adsorbents have been employed to adsorb RR dye, including O-carboxymethylchitosan-N-lauryl/γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (Demarchi et al. 2019), coconut shell-derived activated form of carbon (Saraswati & Sastrawidana 2021), rice husk ash (Costa & Paranhos 2019), chitosan (Kabir et al. 2014), etc. However, this paper is novel in the sense that this is the first-ever report on RR dye (anionic) removal using non-modified jute charcoal. Consistent with the literature, it is observed that Hossain et al. (2016) used treated jute stick powder for Levafix Red (LR) removal and reported 91% adsorption of dye from water. Nipa et al. (2019) worked on the removal of methylene blue dye by using jute stick powder. Furthermore, carboxylated carbon of jute stick was utilized to remove lead (Pb2+) (Aziz et al. 2019). Jute stick activated carbon was studied for three different dyes, i.e., acid red-1, reactive orange-16, and methylene blue (Ghosh et al. 2021). JSC has also been reported to remove methylene blue dye from water (Chakraborty et al. 2020), and it has demonstrated a notable adsorption capacity for Cr(VI), with a maximum adsorption capacity of 11.429 mg/g (Zaman et al. 2022). However, our research indicates that no research has still been conducted on RR dye removal using non-modified JSC, specifically under optimal experimental conditions, from wastewater from a dye bath of fabric samples dyed with the same dye and actual raw textile effluent. Furthermore, for the scaled application of JSC to a wastewater stream with a matrix of constituents, the raw textile effluent was also treated under optimized conditions. Given this context, this study aimed to explore the reusability of JSC for the removal of RR from textile effluent, which will promote sustainability, recycling, and waste management by replacing conventional wastewater treatment methods with effective and eco-friendly adsorption processes employing the use of JSC as an adsorbent.

All reagents, chemicals, and apparatuses

RR (λmax = 518) was used in this study and obtained from Dystar Chemicals Ltd., Singapore. A single jersey knitted fabric was collected from the Fabric Engineering Lab of Textile Engineering College, Noakhali. The wetting agent, the sequestering agent, H2O2 (50%), and detergent (explained in the section ‘Pre-treatment and dyeing of the fabric sample’) were purchased from Officina 39, Italy. All other chemicals and reagents were purchased from the Taj Scientific Store, Chattogram. The apparatuses used in this study were a digital pH meter (Hanna, Romania), a mortar, an electronic balance (EHB, T-scale), a magnetic stirrer (MI0102003), a UV–vis spectrophotometer (CE Cecil 7400, UK), a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (L160000F, Spectrum Two FTIR Spectrometer), an oven drier (GPIS30SSF250HYD, SDL), a muffle furnace (DMF-12), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (EVO 08).

Preparation of JSC

Jute sticks were obtained from Gaibandha District, Bangladesh, then cut into 3- to 4-in. small pieces, and washed by hand with distilled water. The washed material was then dried at 80 °C for 1 day in an oven before being cooled at room temperature. Afterwards, the material was carbonized at 350 °C in a muffle furnace for 3.5 h, followed by grinding using a mortar and pestle to increase its surface area. Finally, it was sieved through a 100-mesh (150-μm) sieve before being stored in a plastic container for future use.

Preparation of the spike solution of RR dye

For 1,000 mg/l spike solution preparation, accurately weighed 1 g of RR dye was added to enough distilled water to make a total volume of 1,000 ml in a measuring flask. The remaining concentrations were prepared by diluting the prepared spike solution using distilled water as required.

Adsorption study

Herein, the batch/discontinuous mode of RR dye adsorption is studied. For conducting experiments, a 100-ml beaker was taken, and a known amount of JSC was dissolved in 25 ml of RR dye solution at different pH levels adjusted with 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M H2SO4, followed by shaking in a magnetic agitator at 120 rpm and room temperature (30 ± 2 °C) for 20 min. An agitation speed of 120 rpm was selected based on the observation that above this specified speed, the studied solution becomes turbid, which affects results to a greater extent. Furthermore, experiments were conducted at room temperature for a minimum duration (i.e., 20 min) to minimize resource input while maximizing output, aligning perfectly with the principles of green chemistry. After completing the experiment, a Whatman glass microfibre filter (grade GF/B) was utilized to filter the sample, followed by absorbance measurement via a UV–visible spectrophotometer at a λmax of 518 nm. Subsequently, the optimum pH was obtained from absorbance readings taken from the UV–visible spectrophotometer. In addition to the pH study, all other experiments, including adsorbent (JSC) dose, RR dye concentration, and contact time studies, were conducted under ambient conditions without altering pH levels. Consistent with the literature (Javed 2018; Batool et al. 2021), Equations (1) and (2) were applied to calculate the removal percentage (R%) and adsorption capacity (Qe (mg/g)):
formula
(1)
formula
(2)
where A0 and Af indicate initial and final absorbance readings of RR dye, respectively, C0 and Ce indicate initial and equilibrium concentrations of RR dye (mg/l), respectively, V indicates volume (L) of the RR dye solution used, and M (g) indicates used mass of the JSC. For all experimental work, a temperature of 30 ± 2 °C was used unless otherwise specified.

Equilibrium study

The adsorption isotherm models are crucial to determining the relationship between the studied adsorbent and the adsorbate and explaining the adsorption behaviour. In this study, two different isotherm models, specifically the Freundlich isotherm model and the Langmuir isotherm model, were utilized to determine the best-fitted model. Optimal equilibrium models are evaluated by assessing regression coefficient (R2) values (Jabeen & Bhatti 2021). The Langmuir model postulates that dye adsorption occurs in a monolayer form, where the dyes are adsorbed onto specific spots on the adsorbent material, and there is no lateral interaction between the adsorbate molecules (Irving 1918). Equation (3) represents the mathematical expression of the Langmuir isotherm model in its linearized expression:
formula
(3)

Here, Qe indicates adsorption capacity (mg/g), KL indicates the Langmuir constant (L/mg), Qmax indicates Langmuir adsorption capacity (mg/g), and Ce indicates equilibrium concentration of RR after adsorption (mg/l).

Another essential factor, i.e., the Langmuir separation factor/separation factor (RL), reflects the feasible condition of different reactions, whether favourable or not. If the value of RL = 0–1, then the studied process is favourable; if RL > 1, RL = 1, and RL = 0, then the process is unfavourable, linear, and irreversible, respectively (Murthy et al. 2019). The mathematical expression of RL could be represented by Equation (4):
formula
(4)
The Freundlich model presumes multiple layers of adsorption of dyes on heterogeneous adsorption points, where the adsorbed molecules exhibit active interactions with each other (Akter et al. 2021). Equation (5) represents the linear form of the Freundlich model:
formula
(5)

Here, Qe indicates adsorption capacity (mg/g), Kf indicates Freundlich constant, n indicates adsorption intensity, and Ce indicates equilibrium concentration of RR after adsorption (mg/l).

Kinetic modelling

Adsorption kinetic models are significant for comprehending the rate and exploring the mechanistic study of adsorption in the wastewater removal process (Zaman et al. 2022). In this research, a pseudo-first-order (PFO) kinetic model and a pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model were investigated. The linear form of these models in Equations (6) and (7) are as follows:
formula
(6)
formula
(7)

Here, Qe indicates concentration of RR at equilibrium time (mg/g), K1 indicates PFO rate constant (min−1), Qt indicates concentration at time t (mg/g), K2 indicates PSO rate constant (g mg−1 min−1).

Pre-treatment and dyeing of the fabric sample

The pre-treatment process, which includes scouring and bleaching to make the fabric suitable for dyeing, was carried out following a combined scouring and bleaching method. This process was conducted in the laboratory Rota Dyer machine at 98 °C for 1 h, with the pH maintained within the range of 10.5–11.5, as shown in Figure 1(a) following a recipe (Table 1). Dyeing was carried out after pre-treatment (Figure 1(b) and Table 1). During dyeing, the fabric sample was treated with a wetting agent, a sequestering agent, and salt at room temperature for 10 min. Then, dye dosing was carried out. After running for 10 min, half the volume of soda ash solution was dosed, followed by a further 10-min run. The temperature was then raised to 60 °C and maintained for 10 min. The remaining half volume of soda ash was then dosed, and the process continued for 30 min. Subsequently, the post-treatment, which involves a series of processes to obtain the desired fabric properties, was carried out by treating the fabric with acetic acid to a temperature of 55 °C for 10 min, followed by a hot wash using soaping agents at 80 °C for the same duration, and finally, a cold wash was performed.
Table 1

Pre-treatment and dyeing recipe of the fabric sample

Pre-treatment recipe
Dyeing recipe
ChemicalsConcentrationRemarksDyes/ChemicalsConcentrationRemarks
Wetting agent (Lissapol N) 1.5 ml/l 98 °C × 1 h Wetting agent (Lissapol N) 1.5 ml/l 60 °C × 70 min 
Sequestering agent (EDTA) 1 g/l Sequestering agent (EDTA) 1 g/l 
Scouring agent (NaOH) 2 g/l Salt (NaCl) 40 g/l 
Bleaching agent (H2O22 g/l Fixing agent (Soda ash) 6 g/l 
Detergent 2 ml/l Dye (RR) 1%* 
Stabilizer (Na2SiO31.5 g/l Neutralizer (CH3COOH) 1 g/l 55 °C × 10 min 
Neutralizer (CH3COOH) 1.2 g/l 55 °C × 10 min Soaping agent 1 g/l 80 °C × 10 min 
Peroxide killer 0.25 ml/l 55 °C × 10 min * = on the weight of material. 
Pre-treatment recipe
Dyeing recipe
ChemicalsConcentrationRemarksDyes/ChemicalsConcentrationRemarks
Wetting agent (Lissapol N) 1.5 ml/l 98 °C × 1 h Wetting agent (Lissapol N) 1.5 ml/l 60 °C × 70 min 
Sequestering agent (EDTA) 1 g/l Sequestering agent (EDTA) 1 g/l 
Scouring agent (NaOH) 2 g/l Salt (NaCl) 40 g/l 
Bleaching agent (H2O22 g/l Fixing agent (Soda ash) 6 g/l 
Detergent 2 ml/l Dye (RR) 1%* 
Stabilizer (Na2SiO31.5 g/l Neutralizer (CH3COOH) 1 g/l 55 °C × 10 min 
Neutralizer (CH3COOH) 1.2 g/l 55 °C × 10 min Soaping agent 1 g/l 80 °C × 10 min 
Peroxide killer 0.25 ml/l 55 °C × 10 min * = on the weight of material. 
Figure 1

(a) Pre-treatment and (b) dyeing process curve of the fabric sample.

Figure 1

(a) Pre-treatment and (b) dyeing process curve of the fabric sample.

Close modal

It is to be noted that a wetting agent, i.e., Lissapol N, helps in wetting the fabric by reducing the surface tension of water, while detergents are used to remove dirt from fabric. A sequestering agent, i.e., ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), is used as a chelating agent to prevent the metal ions present in hard water from interfering with the pre-treatment process and dyeing chemicals. Furthermore, a scouring agent, i.e., NaOH, is used for removing the oil, wax, and pectin of cotton fibres. Their (non-cellulosic portion) removal is crucial to making the fabric hydrophilic, which plays an important role in the dyeing process for even dyeing (Mojsov 2018). To decolourize the natural colour of the fabric and achieve a white appearance, a bleaching agent, i.e., H2O2, is used. This bleaching step provides the perfect shade to the fabric, and during this bleaching process, perhydroxyl ions () are produced from H2O2 that got stabilized with the help of a stabilizer (Na2SiO3). Some peroxide killers are used after the completion of the bleaching process for deactivating H2O2 that otherwise may cause problems in subsequent processes. Furthermore, a fixing agent, namely, soda ash, is used for ionizing the cotton fabric so that it can react with RR dye via covalent bond formation. For reducing the repulsive forces between partially negative cotton fabric in water and anionic RR dye, salt (NaCl) is used. Since pre-treatment and dyeing processes are carried out in an alkaline medium, , a neutralizer, such as CH3COOH, is used for neutralizing the fabric. A soaping agent is used to remove the unfixed dye from the fabric surface.

Collection of the effluent from the fabric sample dyeing bath

The effluent from the dye bath (all the liquor from pre-treatment, dyeing, and post-treatment processes) was collected for a real implication of the JSC adsorbent under optimized conditions to determine the efficiency of removing RR dye from the dye bath effluent, which contains various auxiliaries along with the dye solution.

Collection of the actual textile dye effluent

The raw textile dye effluent was collected from a textile industry in Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The obtained raw effluent was light purple and emitted an unpleasant odour, as it is a mixture of different dyes, including disperse and reactive dyes (dichlorotriazine-based dyes including RR), and some other agents, like a wetting agent, a sequestering agent, a scouring agent, a bleaching agent, a detergent, a stabilizer, a neutralizer, a peroxide killer, etc., in variable amounts. The samples obtained were stored in plastic bottles in the absence of light at room temperature to avoid interaction with sunlight (that will otherwise initiate dye degradation) (Venkataraghavan et al. 2020). The pH of the sample obtained was observed to be 8, which was then adjusted to pH 1 with the help of a 1 M H2SO4 solution. A UV–vis spectrophotometer was used for optimization of the maximum wavelength (λmax), which was observed to be 402 nm. The sample was then diluted to obtain a concentration of 30 mg/l with the help of a calibration curve. Afterwards, an adsorption experiment was conducted with a real textile raw sample under optimized conditions. The removal percentage and adsorption capacity (mg/g) of the sample were calculated with the help of Equations (1) and (2), respectively.

FTIR, SEM, and SEM–EDX analyses of JSC

FTIR spectroscopy analysis was carried out to detect the functional groups present in the JSC and the bonding characteristics between JSC and RR dye. The results of FTIR analysis before and after RR adsorption are shown in Figure 2. Before dye adsorption, the peak obtained at 3,395 cm−1 corresponds to the presence of an H-bonded OH group and the peaks at 2,946 cm−1 correspond to the CH stretching vibration of methyl and methylene groups of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively (Roy et al. 2013). Furthermore, the adsorption peaks at 1,699 and 1,598 cm−1 correspond to the vibration (stretching) of the carbonyl group (C = O) of carboxylic acid and aromatic C = C bonds that support the aromatic ring of lignin (Chakraborty et al. 2020). The aromatic methyl group was ascribed at a peak at 1,427 cm−1. Furthermore, the observed peak at 1,225 cm−1 could be attributed to the C–O stretching vibration. The adsorption peak at 756 cm−1 corresponds to the CH stretching vibrations. Post-dye adsorption results show changes in both intensity and peak wave numbers, including 3,398; 2,972; 1,701; and 1,213 cm−1, conforming to the contribution of these functionalities in RR dye adsorption onto JSC.
Figure 2

FTIR results of (a) virgin JSC and (b) JSC after RR adsorption.

Figure 2

FTIR results of (a) virgin JSC and (b) JSC after RR adsorption.

Close modal
SEM study reveals the morphology of the studied material. The pre-adsorption SEM image (Figure 3(a)) displays the surface of JSC as having large-sized pores and a rough surface. However, after dye adsorption (Figure 3(b)), the surface looks somewhat smoother, with maximum empty cavities filled with dye molecules.
Figure 3

SEM results of (a) virgin JSC and (b) JSC after RR dye adsorption. EDX spectra of (c) virgin JSC and (d) JSC after RR dye adsorption.

Figure 3

SEM results of (a) virgin JSC and (b) JSC after RR dye adsorption. EDX spectra of (c) virgin JSC and (d) JSC after RR dye adsorption.

Close modal

Furthermore, the pre-adsorption SEM–EDX analysis (Figure 3(c)) shows that JSC contains a large amount of carbon (C, 71.74%) and oxygen (O, 28.26%), which are available in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. However, after dye adsorption, as shown in Figure 3(d), the inclusion of new atoms like nitrogen (N), sodium (Na), sulphur (S), and chlorine (Cl), represents the adsorption of –N = N–, –SO3Na, etc. groups of RR dye onto JSC.

Effect of pH and adsorbent dose

For examining the effect of solution pH on dye removal percentage, experiments were carried out at variable solution pH levels, ranging from pH 1 to 11. An RR dye solution with a concentration of 10 mg/l was prepared; to this solution, a JSC dose of 0.2 g was added and shaken well at a speed of 120 rpm. The contact time and reaction temperature were set to be 20 min at 30 ± 2 °C, respectively, followed by calculating the removal percentage using Equation (1). The results of the pH study are presented in Figure 4(a). It is obvious that dye removal percentages at different pH levels (1–11) vary from 69.57 to 17.03%. The impact of pH on RR dye removal may be ascribed to the ionization behaviour of RR dye and adsorbent (JSC) molecules. The surface charge of JSC and the state of ionization of the RR dye molecules are both greatly influenced by the pH. At lower pH values, the adsorbent surface acquires a positive charge because of the presence of more H+ ions in the solution, which results in protonation of functional groups present on the adsorbent surface. This positive charge facilitates robust electrostatic interactions between the anionic RR dye and the positively charged JSC surface, increasing the dye removal percentage (Munagapati et al. 2020). In contrast, with an increase in solution pH, the adsorbent surface experiences a higher negative charge due to the deprotonating effect of functional groups present on the adsorbent surface. This results in a declination of the dye removal percentage by adsorption due to repulsive forces between anionic RR dye molecules and anionic functionalities of the studied adsorbent, a process similar to what was observed by Monteiro et al. (2017).
Figure 4

Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable pH levels (where pH = 1–11, initial concentration of RR = 10 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.2 g, contact time = 20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C). (b) Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable adsorbent doses (where pH = 1),initial concentration of RR = 20 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.1–1.0 g, contact time =20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C).

Figure 4

Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable pH levels (where pH = 1–11, initial concentration of RR = 10 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.2 g, contact time = 20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C). (b) Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable adsorbent doses (where pH = 1),initial concentration of RR = 20 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.1–1.0 g, contact time =20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C).

Close modal

For optimization of the adsorbent dose, experiments were performed by preparing RR dye solutions having a concentration of 20 mg/l at an optimized pH value, i.e., pH 1. Variable JSC doses from 0.1 to 1 g were added to the solution, followed by continuous shaking at 120 rpm speed. The contact time and reaction temperature were set to be 20 min at 30 ± 2 °C, respectively, followed by calculating the removal percentage using Equation (1) according to the methodology followed by Batool et al. (2021),. The results are shown in Figure 4(b), which illustrates that the dye removal percentage displayed a notable upsurge up to 0.6 g of adsorbent owing to the availability of free adsorption sites on the surface of the adsorbent. However, after 0.6 g, any further increase in adsorbent dose results in no significant change. This trend aligns with previous research (Aziz et al. 2018), which observed a similar phenomenon in removing anionic dyes. The reason may be the saturation of available adsorption sites by dye molecule, resulting in no significant rise in removal percentage at a fixed dye concentration.

Effect of time and RR concentration

Adsorption time also affects the adsorption process, and it needs to be optimized. For this reason, experiments were performed by preparing RR dye solutions having a concentration of 100 mg/l at an optimized pH value, i.e., pH 1. The optimized JSC dose of 0.6 g was added to each solution with continuous shaking at 120 rpm speed for a variable contact time varying from 5 to 120 min at 30 ± 2 °C, followed by calculating the removal percentage using Equation (1). The graph in Figure 5(a) depicts the relationship between the contact time and dye removal percentage and offers valuable insights, showing a maximum dye removal of 69.4% and a minimum dye removal of 56.4%. The results showed that there is not a significant variation in removal percentage obtained at 20 and 120 min. Furthermore, a maximum dye removal of 64.68% takes place within the first 20 min. Based on these observations, 20 min was selected as the optimal contact time to conserve both time and energy. The observed phenomena can be explained by the availability of active sites on the JSC surface. The presence of abundant active sites enables efficient dye molecule interaction and adsorption. A rapid increase in adsorption was noted during the initial contact time, owing to the availability of active sites on the adsorbent exterior, as found in a previous study. (Abidi et al. 2019).
Figure 5

Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable time durations (where pH = 1, initial concentration of RR = 100 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.6 g, contact time = 5–120 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C). Removal percentage of RR dye for (b) variable concentrations (where pH = 1, initial concentration of RR = 10–100 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.6 g, contact time = 20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C).

Figure 5

Removal percentage of RR dye for (a) variable time durations (where pH = 1, initial concentration of RR = 100 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.6 g, contact time = 5–120 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C). Removal percentage of RR dye for (b) variable concentrations (where pH = 1, initial concentration of RR = 10–100 mg/l, JSC dose = 0.6 g, contact time = 20 min, and temperature = 30 ± 2 °C).

Close modal

Another important parameter affecting the adsorption process is dye concentration, and for its optimization, experiments were performed by preparing RR dye solutions having variable concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/l with an optimized solution pH value of 1. The optimal JSC dose of 0.6 g was added to the solution and shaken well at 120 rpm speed for 20 min at 30 ± 2 °C, followed by calculating the removal percentage using Equation (1). The results (Figure 5(b)) depict a decreasing trend in dye removal percentage with increasing the initial dye concentration. The data indicated that at a concentration of 10 mg/l, dye removal efficiency was the maximum, i.e., 93.12%, which gradually decreased to 64.68% with an increase in concentration to 100 mg/l. Based on these results, a dye concentration of 10 mg/l was selected as an optimum dye dosage. This inverse relationship between the initial dye concentration and removal efficiency may be attributed to the saturation of active adsorption sites on the adsorbent, leading to their low availability for dye adsorption. Furthermore, this effect is compounded by the repulsions between dye molecules, which also retards the adsorption process at higher dye concentrations. Similar trends have been reported earlier in the literature (Zaman et al. 2021).

Isotherm modelling

To analyze the adsorption isotherm study (Figure 6(a) and 6(b)), the experiment was conducted at an RR dye solution concentration varying from 10 to 100 mg/L while maintaining the other conditions constant at pH 1, 0.6 g JSC dose, 20 min contact time, 30 ± 2 °C temperature. The Langmuir isotherm demonstrates a higher R2 value (Table 2) than the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting that the Langmuir isotherm is a better fit for the adsorption data, suggesting that the adsorption of RR on active sites of JSC conforms to monolayer adsorption. A similar result was found in the study (Navaei et al. 2019). The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity determined in this study is 3.08 mg/g. The separation factor RL ranges from 0.06 to 0.4, which lies between 0 and 1, suggesting favourable dye adsorption on JSC. The Freundlich isotherm model also validates this, as a value of 1/n is less than unity (1/n = 0.4959) (Akter et al. 2021).
Table 2

Various isotherm parameters of RR adsorption on JSC

IsothermIsotherm parameter
Langmuir Qmax (mg/g) KL (dm3/mol) RL R2 
3.08 0.1765 0.06–0.4 0.989 
Freundlich Kf(mg/g) 1/n  R2 
5.16 × 102 0.4959  0.949 
IsothermIsotherm parameter
Langmuir Qmax (mg/g) KL (dm3/mol) RL R2 
3.08 0.1765 0.06–0.4 0.989 
Freundlich Kf(mg/g) 1/n  R2 
5.16 × 102 0.4959  0.949 
Figure 6

Adsorption isotherm graphs of RR onto JSC: (a) Langmuir isotherm and (b) Freundlich isotherm.

Figure 6

Adsorption isotherm graphs of RR onto JSC: (a) Langmuir isotherm and (b) Freundlich isotherm.

Close modal

The comparison of some studies on RR dye adsorption (Table 3) indicates that different types of adsorbents possess different adsorption capacities under variable experimental conditions. This comparative analysis demonstrates the superior performance of JSC against various adsorbents, underscoring its potential as a sustainable solution for RR dye removal, aligning with the concept of green chemistry.

Table 3

Comparison of some adsorption studies on RR dye removal

AdsorbentAdsorption capacity (mg/g)pHRef
Commercial charcoal 0.074 Ara et al. (2013)  
Wood residues (Bagassa guianensis Aubl) 0.71 Monteiro et al. (2017)  
Jute stick charcoal 3.08 Present work 
Coconut mesocarp 3.97 Monteiro et al. (2017)  
Sawdust activated carbon Ara et al. (2013)  
MnO2 nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide 40 Mahmoud et al. (2022)  
Chitosan 155.72 5.4 Kabir et al. (2014)  
Chlorella vulgaris 196 Aksu & Tezer (2005)  
AdsorbentAdsorption capacity (mg/g)pHRef
Commercial charcoal 0.074 Ara et al. (2013)  
Wood residues (Bagassa guianensis Aubl) 0.71 Monteiro et al. (2017)  
Jute stick charcoal 3.08 Present work 
Coconut mesocarp 3.97 Monteiro et al. (2017)  
Sawdust activated carbon Ara et al. (2013)  
MnO2 nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide 40 Mahmoud et al. (2022)  
Chitosan 155.72 5.4 Kabir et al. (2014)  
Chlorella vulgaris 196 Aksu & Tezer (2005)  

Kinetic modelling

For applying kinetic models on adsorption data, experiments were conducted for a duration from 5 to 120 min under the condition of pH 1, 0.6 g adsorbent, and 30 ±2 °C temperature for 100 mg/l dye concentration. Figure 7(a) and 7(b) and Table 4 illustrate the different parameters and experimental data for kinetic models. From Table 4, we get R2 = 0.414 for the PFO model and R2 = 0.999 for the PSO model. The coefficient of determination, R2, points out that the PSO kinetic model fits better to experimental data than the PFO kinetic model. Furthermore, the estimated Qe,cal (mg/g) value exhibited consistency to the experimental Qe,exp (mg/g) value for the PSO model. These results revealed the involvement of some chemical interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate, confirming that the adsorption process is chemisorption in nature (Li et al. 2017; Wong et al. 2020).
Table 4

Kinetic model parameters of RR adsorption on JSC

Kinetic modelParameters
Pseudo-first-order model Qe, exp (mg/g) Qe, cal (mg/g) K1 (min−1) R2 
2.849 8.44 −0.00101 0.414 
Pseudo-second-order model Qe, exp (mg/g) Qe, cal (mg/g) K2 (g mg−1 min−1) R2 
2.849 2.862 0.175 0.999 
Kinetic modelParameters
Pseudo-first-order model Qe, exp (mg/g) Qe, cal (mg/g) K1 (min−1) R2 
2.849 8.44 −0.00101 0.414 
Pseudo-second-order model Qe, exp (mg/g) Qe, cal (mg/g) K2 (g mg−1 min−1) R2 
2.849 2.862 0.175 0.999 
Figure 7

Kinetics model plot of RR onto JSC: (a) pseudo-first-order model and (b) pseudo-second-order model.

Figure 7

Kinetics model plot of RR onto JSC: (a) pseudo-first-order model and (b) pseudo-second-order model.

Close modal

Removal percentage analysis of the effluent from the fabric sample dye bath

The effluent was collected from the sample dye bath, and by lowering the pH to 1, 25 ml of the solution was separated for absorbance measurements. Subsequently, the absorbance was measured by using a UV–visible spectrophotometer, where a dye concentration of the effluent was obtained as 25.3 mg/l based on the calibration curve. After that, the optimized conditions of pH = 1, adsorbent dosage = 0.6 g, adsorption time = 20 min, and solution temperature = 30 ±2 °C were inputted to the system. The results of the study show that the colour removal percentage was 62.4% for the dye bath effluent, whereas the removal percentage for 30 mg/l was 89.12%. Here, the removal percentage was reduced because of the presence of different types of chemicals like the detergent, wetting agent, sequestering agent, bleaching agent, stabilizer, NaOH, CH3COOH, NaCl, etc.

Application of the developed procedure for treating the actual textile effluent

To evaluate the scaled application of JSC to a wastewater stream with a matrix of constituents (Kanamarlapudi et al. 2016), efforts have been devoted to the use of JSC for treating actual textile wastewater (instead of using an aqueous RR dye solution). An experiment was performed under optimum batch conditions that include a solution pH of 1 using an adsorbent dosage of 0.6 g for an optimum adsorption time of 20 min. The concentration of the raw sample was 30 mg/l (obtained from the standard curve). The results of the study reveal that nearly 52.6% of adsorption takes place for 30 mg/l. This removal percentage was less than that obtained with adsorption of the model RR solution prepared at the lab scale (where removal percentage was 89.12% for 30 mg/l) and dyed sample fabric bath (62.4% removal for 25.3 mg/l). This declination of the removal percentage of the textile raw sample by JSC is attributed mainly to the presence of other interfering ions in textile wastewater, such as different anions (phosphate, chloride, carbonates, etc.) and cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, etc.) (Ay et al. 2012), pre-treatment chemicals (already discussed in Table 1), and some other dyes. The results of the study conform to the fact that the studied procedure could be practical to actual industrial wastewater containing different interfering substances (Javaid et al. 2011). However, implementation of the developed procedure at a larger industrial scale involving a mixture of different effluents coming from various industrial spots needs to be expanded by considering the cost and potential risks of implementation. Many fascinating studies on treating actual wastewater for investigating the scaled application of the developed method are available in the literature (Vinodhini & Das 2010; Singh et al. 2012; Ullah et al. 2013).

The application of adsorption techniques for removing toxic dyes from water, especially in resource-constrained developing countries, is gaining significance. Jute stick, an easily available and cost-effective adsorbent, gained importance as a promising adsorbent to remove dyes. Herein, the study includes the adsorptive removal of RR from the textile dyeing effluent by JSC. The FTIR study revealed the presence of some functional groups, including –C–O, –COOH, –OH, etc., which are responsible for developing chemical interactions with the dye. The surface of JSC was examined using SEM analysis, which shows a porous nature, rough texture, and abundance of active sites on JSC capable of adsorbing the RR dye. The post-adsorption EDX report shows the inclusion of new atoms like nitrogen (N), sodium (Na), sulphur (S), and chlorine (Cl), which represent the adsorption of –N = N–, –SO3Na, etc. groups of RR on JSC. The highest adsorption efficiency observed was 93.12% at a lower pH level. Two adsorption isotherms and two kinetic models were studied and investigated, and the obtained experimental data exhibited compatibility with the PSO and Langmuir models. These results conform to chemical interaction and monolayer adsorption of RR on the JSC adsorbent. The implication of the developed study was carried out on the effluent from the fabric sample dyed with RR in a bath and the actual raw textile effluent containing various agents like the wetting agent (for wetting fabric), EDTA (chelating agent), NaOH (for removing oil, wax, pectins of cotton fibres), NaCl (for decreasing the repulsion of partially negative cotton fabric and anionic RR dye in water), CH3COOH (for neutralizing the fabric), soaping agent (for removing the unfixed dye from the fabric surface), etc. The maximum dye removal of 62.4 and 52.6% was obtained. The findings suggest that JSC is a promising adsorbent for the removal of RR dye in the textile dyeing and printing sector.

The authors are grateful to the University of Chittagong, Noakhali Science and Technology University for their generous support and for providing characterization facilities throughout the research work.

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.

The authors declare there is no conflict.

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