Within three areas in Southeastern Norway, Lake Mjøsa district, Ås and Moss - Jeløy, groundwater samples for chemical analysis were collected during the years 1971–77 from 98 drilled wells in bedrocks. The water was taken at depths ranging from 15 m to 110 m below the land surface. The groundwater surface is usually present well below the overlying unconsolidated deposits of glacial, glacifluvial or marine origin.
The movement of groundwater within the aquifers investigated is so slow that regional changes in water quality is not only dependent on weathering in the unsaturated zone, but also dependent on the solution of reservoir rocks below the groundwater surface. Variations in specific electrical conductance (20°C) largely reflects the different reservoir rock types. The highest values, around 550 μS/cm, are typically found in dark calcareous shales, while sandstones and gneisses give values around 300 μS/cm.
The areas Ås and Moss-Jeløy are situated below the Late-Postglacial marine limit. The groundwater is here more or less influenced by ancient sea salts, perhaps also by fossil sea water, left over in sediments or in rock fractures. Brackish groundwater was also found.
The composition of groundwater is largely governed by mineral-water equilibria. Most investigated water samples have not reached equilibrium with their surrounding minerals.