A model for the growth of ice thickness in autumn and winter is presented. Temperature of the upper surface of the ice sheet, snowfall and heat flux from the water are external input variables, and the thickness of black ice, snow ice and snow and the density of snow are predicted through the model. Thermal inertia is neglected. The results are sensitive to the assumed density of freshly fallen snow and the formulation of snow metamorphism. Comparisons between observations and model calculations are given. The agreement is moderate and the need for field work on snow on ice is recognized. A discussion is given on the maximum annual ice thickness under varying external conditions.
Research Article|April 01 1983
A Growth Model for Black Ice, Snow Ice and Snow Thickness in Subarctic Basins
Matti Leppäranta; A Growth Model for Black Ice, Snow Ice and Snow Thickness in Subarctic Basins. Hydrology Research 1 April 1983; 14 (2): 59–70. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.1983.0006
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