The INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) model has been developed to simulate the impact of mine discharges on river systems. The model accounts for the key kinetic chemical processes operating as well as the dilution, mixing and redistribution of pollutants in rivers downstream of mine discharges or acid rock drainage sites. The model is dynamic and simulates the day-to-day behaviour of hydrology and eight metals (cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, manganese and chromium) as well as cyanide and ammonia. The model is semi-distributed and can simulate catchments, sub-catchment and in-stream river behaviour. The model has been applied to the Roşia Montană Mine in Transylvania, Romania, and used to assess the impacts of old mine adits on the local catchments as well as on the downstream Aries and Mures river system. The question of mine restoration is investigated and a set of clean-up scenarios investigated. It is shown that the planned restoration will generate a much improved water quality from the mine and also alleviate the metal pollution of the river system.

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