This study presents a probabilistic radar rainfall estimation (PRRE) model to quantify the reliability and accuracy of the resulting radar rainfall estimates at ungauged locations from a radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) model. This model primarily estimates the quantiles of the radar rainfall errors at ungauged locations by incorporating seven spatiotemporal variogram models with a nonparametric sample quantile estimate method based on the radar rainfall errors at rain gauges. Then, by adding the resulting error quantiles to the radar rainfall estimates, the corresponding radar rainfall quantiles can be obtained. The QPE system Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using Multiple Sensors (QPESUMS) provides hourly observed and radar precipitation for three typhoons in the Shinmen reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan, which are used in the model development and validation. The results indicate that the proposed PRRE model can quantify the spatial and temporal variations of radar rainfall estimates at ungauged locations provided by the QPESUMS system. Also, its reliability and accuracy could be evaluated based on a 95% confidence interval and occurrence probability resulting from the cumulative probability distribution established by the proposed PRRE model.

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