Accelerating social and technological developments take place in the world's northern regions. These developments are challenged by uncertainties in terms of climate and changes in societal needs in the form of water, energy, natural resources development, and recreation development. Other hydrological processes are more important in the north than at lower latitudes. The hydrological processes are dominated by snow, ice, and permafrost. The climatic observational networks are sparse. Since rather little research had been performed and the knowledge about these processes was limited, the Regional Working Group of Northern Research Basins (NRB) was established in 1975 as part of the International Hydrological Program with the objective of gaining a better understanding of the hydrology in a cold climate. The collection of data is an important part of the NRB-program, providing these data for analysis and synthesis. Climate variations and climate change are strongly noticed in the...

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