The 20th International Northern Research Basins (NRB) Symposium and Workshop took place in Kuusamo, Finland, August 16–21, 2015. NRB is the only international conference specifically addressing northern hydrology and related ecological issues.

The first NRB took place in Edefors, Sweden in 1975. At that time no one was talking about climate change, with the exception of some vague speculations on a new ‘Little Ice Age’ being ahead of us. Today no one can disprove climate change. Those who wish to try may start by disproving that smoking is not a health hazard.

In many northern regions, milder winters are one of the most evident manifestations of climate change. In Finland, the strongest signal has been the shortening of the duration of lake ice cover. In some lakes in southern Finland, the freezing date has shifted over 3 weeks later during the last 50 years, in Lapland...

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