Protecting groundwater resources plays an important role in watershed management. For this purpose, studies on groundwater flow dynamics incorporating surface water–groundwater interactions have been conducted including analytical, numerical, and experimental models. In this research, a stream–aquifer system was considered to understand the physical behavior of surface water–groundwater interactions. Interactions in a stream–aquifer system were incorporated into the mathematical modeling by defining the stream head as a boundary condition for the groundwater flow equation. This boundary was chosen as a sloping stream boundary, which is an approach in representing the natural conditions of the stream and may be used to define continuous interactions between stream and aquifer. A semi-analytical solution for transient 2D groundwater flow was developed for the considered problem. Isotropic, homogeneous, and finite aquifer assumptions were made in order to define the aquifer characteristics. Then, a series of laboratory experiments was conducted to simulate this stream–aquifer system. Finally, a numerical model was developed by using Visual MODFLOW to verify analytical and experimental results. Numerical results matched with both analytical solutions and the experimental observations.

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