Soil erosion of farmland is a major issue faced by the agricultural industry. Control of water-induced erosion can be improved through the simulation of different configurations of vegetation row direction to analyze the effects of farmland vegetation row directions RD on the hydraulic characteristics of flow. The farmland vegetation row directions were simulated and the anisotropic influence of the farmland vegetation row direction on flow hydraulic characteristics was experimentally analyzed. Three groups of farmland vegetation row directions with angles θ of 15°, 45°, and 90° with respect to the flow direction FD were configured. Experimental results show that different angles caused variation in hydraulic parameters velocity V, Reynolds number Re, Froude number Fr, and Darcy–Weisbach friction factor λ along the directions of flow. The rates of change of λ, Re, and Fr were analyzed statistically, where θ was increased every 10°; the average rate of decrease of λ was 5.2% and the average rates of increase of Re and Fr were 2.2% and 3.4%, respectively. These results indicate that the vegetation distribution pattern on farmland has an anisotropic influence on the hydraulic characteristics of flow. This investigation provides valuable references for the optimization of farmland vegetation distribution and soil erosion control.