Abstract

Capillary rise is capable of demonstrating the mechanism involved in groundwater evaporation, where the evaporation from saliferous groundwater could be quantized in accordance with fresh groundwater. The two types of experiments included 12 treatments with four solutes (KCl, NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) that were dissolved in groundwater at three concentrations (5, 30, and 100 g/L), and one control treatment without the salt solutions. The results demonstrated that the capillary action played a dominant role only within a very short period of time at the beginning of evaporation (i.e. within 2 min). The total dissolved solid (TDS) of the groundwater that was dissolved with KCl or NaCl affected the capillary water gravity more than soil pore structure. The TDS of the groundwater that was dissolved with CaCl2 or MgCl2 affected both the capillary water gravity and the soil pore structure. During the groundwater evaporation process, the evaporation conversion coefficient CTDS (>1.0) had the potential to calculate the saliferous-groundwater evaporation in accordance with the fresh-groundwater evaporation. The CTDS values were the largest for the groundwater that was dissolved with KCl/NaCl and CaCl2/MgCl2 at 5 and 30 g/L, where it reached average values of 1.3530–1.3735 and 1.3257–1.3589.

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