In India, as elsewhere, groundwater is a vital component of the ecosystem and its controlled use should not interfere adversely with the natural hydrologic cycle. However, its misuse causes many problems and may be observed in the Bist Doab and adjacent areas of the Punjab state where difficulties arise from water-logging, pollution by industrial toxic wates and overdraft in the phreatic aquifer. Remedial measures should include artificial recharge to groundwater in recharge areas by means of check impoundments and infiltration basins in order to overcome serious over-exploitation currently in progress.