The formation of ripples and dunes (lower range bed waves) is assumed to be related to the transport of sediment as bed load. From the present theory it is concluded that the formation of the upper range bed configurations (standing waves, antidunes) may be explained on the assumption that the predominant part of the sediment transport is in suspension. The paper presents a mathematical model of the formation of double-periodic antidunes, first-order potential flow theory being applied. It differs from previous models in taking account of the non-uniform distribution of the suspended load. The theory predicts regions of stability and instability. Results are compared with measurements made by different observers.
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