One hundred samples were collected from the surface of the Upper Fremont Glacier at equally spaced intervals defined by an 8,100 m2 snow grid to assess the significance of lateral variability in major-ion concentrations and del oxygen-18 values. For the major ions, the largest concentration range within the snow grid was sodium (0.5056 mg/l) and the smallest concentration range was sulfate (0.125 mg/l). Del oxygen-18 values showed a range of 7.45 per mil. Comparison of the observed variability of each chemical constituent to the variability expected by measurement error indicated substantial lateral variability within the surface-snow layer. Results of the nested ANOVA indicate most of the variance for every constituent is in the values grouped at the two smaller geographic scales (between 506 m2 and within 506 m2 sections). Calcium and sodium concentrations and del oxygen-18 values displayed the largest amount of variance at the largest geographic scale (between 2,025 m2 sections) within the grid and ranged from 14 to 26 per cent of the total variance. The variance data from the snow grid were used to develop equations to evaluate the significance of both positive and negative concentration/value peaks of nitrate and del oxygen-18 with depth, in a 160 m ice core. Solving the equations indicates that both the nitrate and del oxygen-18 ice-core profiles have concentration/value trends that exceed the limits expected from lateral variability. Values of del oxygen-18 in the section from 110-150 m below the surface consistently vary outside the expected limits and possibly represents cooler temperatures during the Little Ice Age from about 1810 to 1725 A.D.
Assessment of Spatial Variability of Major-Ion Concentrations and DEL Oxygen-18 Values in Surface Snow, Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A.
D. L. Naftz, P. F. Schuster, M. M. Reddy; Assessment of Spatial Variability of Major-Ion Concentrations and DEL Oxygen-18 Values in Surface Snow, Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A.. Hydrology Research 1 October 1994; 25 (5): 371–388. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.1994.0015
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