The dynamics of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and river runoff in the Belarus part of the Baltic Sea basin have been studied. Correlation coefficients between NAO indices and monthly, seasonal and annual discharges were calculated, changes in the runoff in the opposite stages of NAO and its intra-annual distribution were analysed, and runoff trends for different time series were investigated. The closest connection could be observed between NAO indices for December–March and the runoff of Belarusian rivers in the Baltic basin. The highest correlation coefficients were calculated for winter and spring months. The intra-annual runoff differs in opposite stages of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The most significant increase of monthly runoff was observed after 1961. There was a positive trend of runoff at the beginning of the year, but a negative one in the summer and autumn months.