The study of changes in river discharge is important for regional climate variability characterization and for development of an efficient water resource management system. The hydrological regime of rivers and their long-term changes in Latvia were investigated. Four major types of river hydrological regimes, which depend on climatic and physicogeographic factors, were characterized. These factors are linked to the changes observed in river discharge. Periodic oscillations of discharge, and low- and high-water flow years are common for the major rivers in Latvia. A main frequency of river discharge regime changes of about 20 and 13 years was estimated for the studied rivers. A significant impact of climate variability on the river discharge regime has been found.