Chemical changes in water circulating deep in the fissures of the solid rock are studied. The ultimate chemical composition is determined by the conditions of percolation through the soil zone. For each liter of water 1 g of mineral will be destroyed. An alkaline environment favors an early formation of Na-montmorillonite. The turnover time varies from some years to thousands of years.
GUNNAR JACKS; CHEMISTRY OF SOME GROUND WATERS IN IGNEOUS ROCKS. Hydrology Research 1 August 1973; 4 (4): 207–236. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.1973.0015
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