The study examined the formation, break-up, and duration of ice phenomena and ice cover on Lake Morskie Oko (1,395.4 metres above sea level (masl)), which is a representative of high mountain lakes in the Tatra Mountains located in the western Carpathian Mountains with a maximum elevation of 2,655 masl in the period 1971–2010. The maximum thickness was analyzed additionally. The lake covers an area of nearly 32 hectares and its greatest depth is 51.8 m. Its water is very clear with transparency reaching 12.5 m in depth. The trend towards a delayed freeze-up reaches 4.1 days per decade (d decade−1) (p < 0.01) and the ablation of ice on Lake Morskie Oko tends to take place earlier at a rate of 4.5 d decade−1 (p < 0.05). The time period with ice cover on the lake has been getting shorter at a rate of 10 d decade−1 during the time frame of interest. Results of ice cover research on Lake Morskie Oko are consistent with recent studies which have shown that ice duration on lakes throughout the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the last few decades and they serve as new evidence which confirms a warming of the climate in this section of Europe.

This content is only available as a PDF.