A review of the available methods for analyzing turbulent mixing in lakes is presented. The different types of flow are classified and their turbulence characteristics described. The diffusion caused by turbulence is examined with the conclusion that no reliable analytical description is available for the moment, so for technical purposes field surveys are recommended. Entrainment processes in stratified lakes are analyzed by considering the turbulent energy exchange, and analytical expressions for common types of flow are presented. Finally windrows, their origin and their effect on the mixing are described.
Niels-Erik Ottesen Hansen; Mixing Processes in Lakes. Hydrology Research 1 April 1978; 9 (2): 57–74. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.1978.0006
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