In most lakes the wind is the most important flow generating mechanism. In this paper the problem of wind generated circulation - directly wind induced currents and seiches - in small lakes is reviewed. Many field observations are presented and discussed. In the thermocline and the hypolimnion forced seiche currents are shown to dominate the directly induced wind currents. Different kind of non-convective mathematical lake models are discussed and applied to different small lakes. Comparisons of observed and calculated currents show that lake models can be used to reproduce the currents of the upper 3–4 metres in a lake. The interaction between large-scale flow and turbulent flow is yet unknown, and therefore it is not possible to explain the physical current pattern and density anomalies at greater depth. In respect to the limited knowledge on turbulent processes in lakes, it is acceptable to apply a quadric relationship between wind stress and wind speed with a drag coefficient of about 1.0.10−3..
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Lars Bengtsson; Wind Induced Circulation in Lakes. Hydrology Research 1 April 1978; 9 (2): 75–94. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.1978.0007
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