Bank filtration induced by groundwater pumping results in redox zonation along the groundwater flow path. Besides the river water, recharge from other sources can change local redox conditions; therefore, redox zonation is likely to be complex within the riverbank filtration (RBF) system. In this study, hydrodynamics, hydrogeochemistry, and environmental stable isotopes were combined together to identify the redox conditions at an RBF site. The recharge characteristics and redox processes were revealed by monitoring the variations of water level, δ2H and δ18O, and redox indexes along shallow and deep flow paths. The results show that local groundwater is recharged from river, regional groundwater, and precipitation. The responses of redox zonation are sensitive to different sources. In the river water recharge zone near shore, O2, NO3-, Mn(IV), Fe(III), and SO42- are reduced in sequence, the ranges of each reaction are wider in deep groundwater because of the high-velocity deep flow. In the precipitation vertical recharge zone, precipitation intermittently drives O2, NO3-, and organic carbon to migrate through vadose zone, thereby decreasing the groundwater reducibility. In the regional groundwater lateral recharge zone in the depression cone, the reductive regional groundwater is continuously recharging local groundwater, leading to the cyclic reduction of Mn(IV) and Fe(III).
Hydrodynamics, hydrogeochemistry, and environmental stable isotopes were combined to explore the redox zonation in an RBF system.
Redox zones and sequential redox processes involved were identified and partitioned.
Analysis of the redox zonation response to flow regime and recharge of river, precipitation, and regional groundwater.