The past decades have witnessed China's rapid economic development, urbanization and the improvement of people's well-being. The water shortages caused by population growth, water pollution and/or climate extremes (drought and flood), as well as the degradation of aquatic ecosystems, place pressure on the social development of the whole country. In order to fuel sustainable development, it is necessary and urgent to introduce feasible strategies and policies concerning effective water resources management. Therefore, the China Water Forum gathered professional brains to motivate sparkling ideas which are recorded in this Special Issue.

The China Water Forum, organized by the China Society of Natural Resources, is one of the most useful platforms for scientists to discuss current water-related problems in China. The 17th China Water Forum hosted by Beijing Normal University (BNU), China, was held on 8‒10th November, 2019. Over 1,000 professors, engineers and graduate students from more than 80 domestic universities/institutes attended this forum, who are related to the research and management of hydrology, water resources, and the water eco-environment. This Special Issue is composed of 25 original articles contributed by the participants who officially presented their academic achievements in the field of ‘Advances in Eco-hydrology and Watershed Water Resources Management in China’.

These articles consist of various topics including: climate change influences on hydrological processes, evaluation and predication of drought and flooding, water pollution control (surface and ground water), water security and water resources shortages, as well as water environmental management modeling by process-based and deep learning methods. The results and conclusions are expected to guide global water quantity-quality-ecology management and climate change adaptation.