A clear understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water resources is essential for the optimal allocation and sustainable utilization of water resources. In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water resources in Henan Province were studied based on GIS, combining the Mann-Kendall (M-K) nonparametric test and rescaled range (R/S) analysis. In addition, SPSS software was used to analyze the influence of climate and land use type on water resources. The results indicated that (1) the hot spots of water resources were concentrated in the southwest, while the low values were concentrated in the northeast, and the distribution of water resources decreased from southwest to northeast. (2) In the past 21 years, spatiotemporal mutations in the water resource sequence occurred between 2010 and 2014. The Z-values of the M-K trend test were all less than 0, the H-values of groundwater resources (GWRs) were mostly greater than 0.5, and the h-values of surface water resources (SWRs) and total water resources (TWRs) were less than 0.5, showing an overall declining trend. However, this trend may change in the future. (3) From the correlation analysis, climate change had a greater impact on water resources than land use changes did.

  • Combining the M-K method and R/S analysis to study water resource sequences and used GIS to visualize the analysis.

  • Both temporal and spatial characteristics of water resources had abrupt changes during the 21 years, and they occurred at similar times. Precipitation had a greater effect than temperature on water resources, while land use had no significant effect on water resources.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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