This study applied machine learning methods to perform the probabilistic forecasting of coastal wave height during the typhoon warning period. The probabilistic forecasts comprise a deterministic forecast and the probability distribution of a forecast error. A support vector machine was used to develop a real-time forecasting model for generating deterministic wave height forecasts. The forecast errors of deterministic forecasting were then used as a database to generate probabilistic forecasts by using the modified fuzzy inference model. The innovation of the modified fuzzy inference model includes calculating the similarity of the data by performing fuzzy implication and resampling the potential data from the fuzzy database for probability distribution. The probabilistic forecasting method was applied to the east coast of Taiwan, where typhoons frequently cause large waves. Hourly wave height data from an offshore buoy and various typhoon characteristics were used as inputs of the probabilistic forecasting model. Validation results from real typhoon events verified that the proposed probabilistic forecasting model can generate the predicted confidence interval, which can properly enclose the observed wave height data, excluding some cases with extreme wave heights. Moreover, an objective measure was used to validate the proposed probabilistic forecasting method.

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