In the pumping station, the main feedwater system and the reactor system of nuclear power plant, power-supply failure causes strong hydraulic transients. One-dimensional method of characteristics (1D-MOC) is used to calculate the transient process in the pipeline system while three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics is employed to analyze the turbulent flows inside the pump and to obtain the performance parameters of the pump, and the data exchanges on the boundary conditions of the shared interface between 1D and 3D domains are updated based on the MpCCI platform. Based on the equation of motion of the pump motion parts, the relationship between the external characteristics and the internal flow field in the pump is further investigated because the dynamic behavior of the pump and the detailed fluid field evolutions inside the pump are captured during the transition process, and the transient flow rate, rotating speed, and pressure inside the impeller are comprehensively investigated. Meanwhile, compared with the data gained by experiment and traditional 1D-MOC, the relative errors of rotating speed and the flow rate obtained by 1D-3D coupling method are smaller than those by 1D-MOC. Furthermore, the influences of the main coupling parameters and coupling modes on the calculation results are analyzed, and the cause of the deviation is further explained.