Abstract

Booster chlorination reduces the risks associated with conventional disinfection such as high chlorine residuals near water treatment plants and low chlorine residuals at remote parts of water distribution systems (WDSs). Network operational interventions have a significant influence on water age and chlorine decay in WDSs. In this study, an integrated booster chlorination method is developed to obtain optimal designs that reduce the risks associated with conventional disinfection in WDSs. The method integrates booster chlorination with network operational interventions to reduce water age and improve chlorine residuals in WDSs. A multi-objective booster optimisation problem is formulated based on risks associated with chlorine disinfection and solved using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and the EPANET hydraulic and water quality solver. The proposed methodology was tested in the Phakalane WDS in Botswana. The integrated booster disinfection method significantly improves chlorine residuals in a WDSs with lower mass and cost of chlorine than conventional disinfection. Furthermore, the study indicates that integrated booster chlorination designs are influenced by changes in network conditions such as water demand and chlorine decay coefficients. Therefore, periodic monitoring of these parameters is required to ensure that the acceptable performance of chlorine boosters in WDSs is maintained.

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