Abstract

Optimal groundwater monitoring networks have an important role in water resources management. For this purpose, two scenarios were presented. The first scenario designs a monitoring network and the second scenario chooses optimal wells from the existing ones in the study area of the monitoring network. At the first step, a database including groundwater elevation in potential wells was produced using the Kriging method. The optimal monitoring network in the first scenario was determined by preset conventions and found by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). In the second scenario, the optimal monitoring network was determined by entropy theory through calculating entropy for each of the 29 observation wells. Finally, the first scenario obtained a network with 12 observation stations showing root mean square error (RMSE) value given as 0.61 m. Comparison between entropy of rainfall and groundwater level time series in the first scenario had the same variation. The optimal monitoring network in the first scenario has been able to reduce the number of monitoring stations by 60% in comparison with the existing observation network. The second scenario used entropy theory and calculated the energy of each of the 29 observation wells which obtained a monitoring network with 11 stations.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
You do not currently have access to this content.