The present study deals with numerical simulations of the free and submerged hydraulic jumps over different shapes of roughness in various roughness arrangements and different Froude number conditions. The models were studied using three roughness shapes, i.e. triangular, square and semi-oval for 0.2 < T/I < 0.5, where T and I are height and distance of roughness, respectively. The results showed that the numerical model is fairly well able to simulate the free and submerged jump characteristics. The effect of roughness plays a role in the reduction of the relative maximum velocity which is greater in the submerged jump. The thickness of the boundary layer for both free and submerged jumps decreases with increasing the distance between the roughnesses. Triangular macroroughness has a significant effect on the length of the jump and shortest length with respect to the other shapes. The reduction in the submerged depth ratio and tailwater depth ratio depends mainly on the space of the roughnesses. The highest shear stress and energy loss in both jumps occur in a triangular macroroughness (TR) with T/I = 0.50 compared to other ratios and modes. The numerical results were compared with previous studies and relationships with good correlation coefficients were presented for the mentioned parameters.

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