Physically based (process) models based on mathematical descriptions of water motion are widely used in river basin management. During the last decade the so-called data-driven models are becoming more and more common. These models rely upon the methods of computational intelligence and machine learning, and thus assume the presence of a considerable amount of data describing the modelled system's physics (i.e. hydraulic and/or hydrologic phenomena). This paper is a preface to the special issue on Data Driven Modelling and Evolutionary Optimization for River Basin Management, and presents a brief overview of the most popular techniques and some of the experiences of the authors in data-driven modelling relevant to river basin management. It also identifies the current trends and common pitfalls, provides some examples of successful applications and mentions the research challenges.

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