Following the events of 9/11/2001 in the US, the world public awareness to possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased significantly. The security of drinking water distribution systems has become a foremost concern around the globe. Water distribution systems are spatially diverse and thus are inherently vulnerable to intentional contamination intrusions. In this study, a multiobjective optimization evolutionary model for enhancing the response against deliberate contamination intrusions into water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. Two conflicting objectives are explored: (1) minimization of the contaminant mass consumed following detection, versus (2) minimization of the number of operational activities required to contain and flush the contaminant out of the system (i.e. number of valves closure and hydrants opening). Such a model is aimed at directing quantitative response actions in opposition to the conservative approach of entire shutdown of the system until flushing and cleaning is completed. The developed model employs the multiobjective Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm–II (NSGA-II) scheme, and is demonstrated using two example applications.

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